At COP 1 in 1995, the parties to the UNFCCC decided to accelerate climate efforts by starting negotiations on a first sub-agreement. They agreed that the new agreement, in line with the principle of the CBDRRC, would set binding targets and timelines to reduce emissions from developed countries, but not new commitments for developing countries. (In the non-binding Byrd Hagel resolution, the U.S. Senate rejected this premise, saying the agreement should also include new greenhouse gas limits for developing countries.) The objective of the agreement is to reduce global warming as described in Article 2, «to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC» by: As a contribution to the objectives of the agreement, countries have submitted comprehensive Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points the way for further action. Given its hybrid legal nature, President Obama was able to ratify the Paris Agreement through executive action without seeking Senate advice and approval. The agreement entered into force at the end of 2016, much earlier than expected, and the parties are currently developing detailed implementing modalities that will be adopted at COP 24 in 2018. The extent to which each country is on track to meet its commitments under the Paris Agreement can be continuously tracked online (via the Climate Action Tracker and the Climate Clock). Currently, 197 countries – every nation on earth, the last signatory being war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. Of these, 179 have solidified their climate proposals with formal approval – including the US for now.
The only major emitting countries that have not yet officially joined the deal are Russia, Turkey and Iran. In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Earth Summit in Rio, Brazil, to adopt a number of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human interference in Earth`s climate systems in the long term. The Pact does not set limits on greenhouse gas emissions for each country and does not include enforcement mechanisms, but rather provides a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emission targets. Participating countries meet annually for a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to tackle climate change. Unlike previous climate agreements, the Paris Agreement is entirely voluntary. This means that while the agreement requires each country to submit an NDC plan, there are no provisions on how and to what extent countries should reduce their emissions. Countries` plans can vary widely in terms of specific targets, ambitions and even how they measure emission reductions. President Obama was able to formally include the United States in the international agreement through executive action, as he did not impose any new legal obligations on the country. The U.S. already has a number of tools on its books, under laws already passed by Congress to reduce carbon pollution.
The country formally acceded to the agreement in September 2016 after submitting its proposal for participation. The Paris Agreement could not enter into force until at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had officially acceded to it. This happened on October 5, 2016 and the agreement entered into force 30 days later, on November 4, 2016. Other countries have ratified the agreement, which entered into force in 2005. However, the original emissions targets were only extended until 2012, and when it came time to negotiate a second round by 2020, several other developed countries refused to join. The Kyoto Protocol remains technically in force, but its targets cover only a small fraction of global emissions, and future targets are not expected. One element of the protocol that can be pursued is the Clean Development Mechanism, which makes emission reductions in developing countries certifiable as tradable emission offsets. The goal of preventing what scientists consider dangerous and irreversible levels of climate change — which would be achieved at a warming of about 2°C compared to pre-industrial times — is at the heart of the deal. The agreement contains commitments from all countries to reduce their emissions and work together to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time. The agreement provides an opportunity for developed countries to assist developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts, while providing a framework for transparent monitoring and reporting on countries` climate goals. Although the United States and Turkey are not party to the agreement because they have not declared their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, as Annex 1 countries of the UNFCCC, they will continue to be required to produce national communications and an annual greenhouse gas inventory.  The NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Action Summit a success by encouraging more ambitious commitments compared to the historic 2015 agreement and initiatives to reduce pollution.
INDCs become NDCs – Nationally Determined Contributions – once a country formally accedes to the agreement. There are no specific requirements on how countries should reduce their emissions or to what extent, but there have been political expectations regarding the nature and severity of the targets set by different countries. As a result, national plans vary considerably in scope and ambition, largely reflecting each country`s capacities, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has pledged to reduce its carbon emissions by 2030 at the latest and to reduce carbon emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60 to 65 percent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels by 2030. For the first time in history, the agreement brings all the nations of the world together in a single agreement to fight climate change. Under the Paris Agreement, each country must regularly identify, plan and report on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism requiring a country to set a specific emission target on a specific date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States officially withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the agreement after his inauguration.  The implementation of the agreement by all Member States will be assessed every 5 years, with the first evaluation taking place in 2023.
The result will serve as a contribution to new Nationally Determined Contributions by Member States.  The assessment is not a contribution/achievement of individual countries, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what still needs to be done. The agreement stipulated that it would only enter into force (and thus become fully effective) if 55 countries producing at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015) ratified, accepted, approved or acceded to the convention.   On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries will sign the Paris Climate Agreement.   175 Contracting Parties (174 States and the European Union) signed the Agreement on the day of its first opening for signature.   On the same day, more than 20 countries published a memorandum of understanding to accede as soon as possible in order to accede in 2016. With its ratification by the European Union, the agreement received enough contracting parties to enter into force on 4 November 2016. President George H.W. Bush joined more than other world leaders at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 in adopting a number of international environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC.
The president then ratified the UNFCCC with the advice and approval of the U.S. Senate, and the agreement has since been adopted by virtually every nation in the world. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as sanctions for non-compliance) only for developed countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developed – to do their part and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, greater flexibility is built into the Paris Agreement: it does not include language in the commitments that countries should make, countries can voluntarily set their emission targets (NDCs) and countries are not penalized if they do not meet the proposed targets. What the Paris Agreement requires, however, is monitoring, reporting, and reassessing countries` individual and collective goals over time in order to bring the world closer to the broader goals of the agreement. And the agreement stipulates that countries must announce their next set of targets every five years – unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which aimed at that target but did not contain a specific requirement to achieve it. It is rare that there is consensus among almost all nations on a single issue. But with the Paris Agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change is driven by human behavior, that it poses a threat to the environment and to all of humanity, and that global action is needed to stop it. .
http://mkoapostoli.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/apostoli_logo_gr_340x156.png00http://mkoapostoli.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/apostoli_logo_gr_340x156.png2022-04-20 02:38:042022-04-20 02:38:04Why Was the Paris Agreement Created